Naupactus xanthographus was revised by Lanteri & del Río (2017), along with the species of the same group of Naupactus. It is similar to N. dissimilis Hustache and mainly differentiates because in the females the elytra are strongly widened relative to the pronotum and abruptly narrowed towards the apex, which tubercles are larger and more separated from each other. The stripes along pronotum and elytra are usually yellow instead of white, except the elytral suture, which is always white, and never extends along midline of the pronotum, such as in N. dissimulator.
This species shows a remarkable sexual dimorphism. Males are narrower and usually smaller than females and bear a line of denticles on the inner margin of all tibiae; the distal denticle of the hind tibiae is very large, with the appearance of a mucron proximally displaced (in females the hind tibiae lack denticles).
First instar and mature larvae have been described by Marvaldi & Loiácono (1994) and Marvaldi (1998). The biology was studied in Chile, country in which was probably introduced, by Caballero (1968), González et al. (1992) and other authors. A phylogeographic study with notes on its potential distribution was published by Guzmán et al. (2012).
Frequently associated with Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae), other fruit trees (e.g. Prunus persica var. nectarine) and garden plants in Argentina (Mendoza) and Chile (González et al. 1992, Artigas 1994, Lanteri et al. 2002a). In Argentina it is part of the alfalfa weevil complex (Lanteri 1994), and was found damaging cherries and berries, Prunus avium L. (Rosaceae) and Ribes sp (Grossulariaceae) in Chubut (del Río et al. 2010) and soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. and Erythrina crista-galli L. (Fabaceae) in Córdoba.
It is widespread in Chacoan, Pampean, Espinal and Monte biogeographic provinces.